Starting 2017 the European XFEL will generate up to 27000 ultra short X-ray pulses per second with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources. The facility, which is the only one of its kind in the world, will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users. The talk will provide a brief overview of the European XFEL and will focus on the three up to 800 m long x-ray optics and beam transport systems, which are being installed in underground tunnels.It will show some examples of X-ray optical elements, gas based devices from a vacuum perspective and address challenges like design of collimators, handling particle-free assembly of components and avoiding particle transport through the vacuum system.References:• H. Sinn, M. Dommach, X. Dong, D. La Civita, L. Samoylova, R. Villanueva, and F. Yang: “Technical Design Report: X-Ray Optics and Beam Transport” XFEL.EU TR-2012-006 (2012)