DESY and European XFEL organized an international expert meeting in November 2019. It was aimed at identifying and assessing the potential risks of dual use in the fields of FEL science and technology and at devising a nuanced approach based on best practices to guide the international research community. Approaches were taken to consider the topic from various angles, including scientific, technological, and legislative aspects. This report summarizes that meeting. It includes summaries contributed voluntarily by speakers who allowed us to reveal their names, and it provides a list of participants who have similarly allowed their names to be presented. There are also additional summaries provided by a subgroup of the participants from the break-out sessions that provide content and context of these open yet focused discussions. Those summaries are complemented by references on the subject and an extended bibliography on the topic of dual use in science and technology (S&T) and on governance.