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Abstract

Techniques like inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) are currently limited by the photon flux available at X-ray sources. At $14.4$ keV, third generation synchrotron radiation sources produce a maximum of $10^{10}$ photons per second in a meV bandwidth. In this work we discuss about the possibility of increasing this flux a thousand-fold by exploiting high repetition rate self-seeded pulses at the European XFEL. Here we report on a feasibility study for an optimized configuration of the SASE2 beamline at the European XFEL which combines self-seeding and undulator tapering techniques in order to increase the average spectral flux at $14.4$ keV. In particular, we propose to perform monochromatization at $7.2$ keV with the help of self-seeding, and amplify the seed in the first part of output undulator. The amplification process can be stopped at a position well before saturation, where the electron beam gets considerable bunching at the 2nd harmonic of the coherent radiation. A second part of the output undulator follows, tuned to the 2nd harmonic frequency, i.e. at $14.4$ keV and is used to obtain saturation at this energy. One can further prolong the exchange of energy between the photon and the electron beam by tapering the last part of the output undulator. We performed start-to-end simulations and demonstrate that self-seeding, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve more than a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with the nominal SASE regime at saturation, resulting in a maximum flux of order $10^{13}$ photons per second in a meV bandwidth.

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